RISE
Volume 33 No. 2 – July-December 2021
The Five Endemic Species of Philippine Ironwoods (Mangkono)

This issue features the five (5) species of Ironwoods that are endemic to the Philippines and considered as threatened under the DENR Administrative Order. No. 2017-11 (Updated National List of Threatened Philippine Plantsa and their Categories, under Republic Act no. 9147 and by Section 6 of DAO No. 2007-01 (Establishing the National List of Threatened Philippine Plants and their Categories and the List of other Wildlife Species)]. These species are Bagoadlau (Xanthostemon philippinensis Merr.), Mangkono (Xanthostemon verdugonianus Naves), Mapilig (Xanthostemon bracteatus Merr.), Palawan Mangkono (Xanthostemon speciosus Merr.) and Sierra Madre Mangkono (Xanthostemon fruticosus Peter G. Wilson & Co.) which belonged to Family Myrtaceae. This is a large family of plants that contains some of the hardest wood producing trees. Among the mentioned endemic species, three (3) of them are considered critically endangered such as Bagoadlau, Mapilig and Sierra Madre Mangkono.

Moreover, these five species of Xanthostemon have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Among the five, three species were categorized as Vulnerable which include Bagoadlau, Mangkono, and Mapilig. Palawan Mangkono was categorized as Near Threatened while Sierra Madre Mangkono falls under Endangered status (IUCN Version 2018-2).